Abstract : The problems of system grounding, that is, connection to ground of neutral, of the corner of the delta, or of the midtap of one phase, are covered. The advantages and disadvantages of grounded vs. ungrounded systems are discussed. Information is given on how to ground the system, where the system should be grounded, and how to select equipment for the ground of the neutral circuits. Connecting the frames and enclosures of electric apparatus, such as motors, switchgear, transformers, buses, cables, conduits, building frames, and portable equipment, to a ground system is addressed. The fundamentals of making the interconnection of a ground conductor system between electric equipment and the ground rods, water pipes, etc., are outlined. The problems of static electricity— how it is generated, what processes may produce it, how it is measured, and what should be done to prevent its generation or to drain the static charges to earth to prevent sparking—are treated. Methods of protecting structures against the effects of lightning are also covered. Obtaining a low-resistance connection to earth, use of ground rods, connections to water pipes, etc., are discussed. A separate chapter on electronic equipment is included.

Keywords: connection to earth, electronic equipment grounding, equipment grounding, lightning protection, static protection, system grounding

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As part of the safety induction program of our team, each member is required to attend a Power Line Safety Awareness Training Seminar. Despite having known the hazards of electricity through the years of experience in the industry, I did not hesitate to attend the seminar. I believe that it will serve as a refresher course for me

I did not regret attending the seminar. Our speaker has been a former line trade person for 25 years and certified to be a live line worker at 275kV. He left the power company to join a safety training company.

You may have heard about the 700,000+ website and 9,000 servers affected by the supply transformer explosion of "The Planet" data center in Houston, Texas. "The Filipino Engineer" was one of the affected websites making it off line for several days.

A transformer explosion is basically a sign of insulation failure. There are a number of factors affecting insulation failure. These factors include:

  • Incorrect selection
  • Overloading
  • Poor Maintenance
  • High Operating Temperature
  • Lightning or Line Surges
  • and many others

While searching the internet for some references, I came across Areva (formerly Alsthom) website. The book on Network Protection and Automation guide provides a comprehensive information on how tos. I found it very essential for any Electrical design engineer.