The requirements for Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres have been detailed in the IEC 60079 series.
This article, an extract from IEC 60079-10, will be the first of a series of articles discussing the requirements for explosive gas atmosphere electrical installations. To understand better the requirements for hazardous areas installations, IEC 60079-10 provides the classification of explosive atmospheres.
The objective of IEC 60079-10, Classification of hazardous areas, is to set out the essential criteria against which the risk of ignition can be assessed, and to give guidance on the design and control parameters which can be used in order to reduce this risk.
In areas where dangerous quantities and concentrations of flammable gas or vapour may arise, protective measures are to be applied in order to reduce the risk of explosions.
Area classification objectives
Area classification is a method of analysing and classifying the environment where explosive gas atmospheres may occur so as to facilitate the proper selection and installation of apparatus to be used safely in that environment, taking into account gas groups and temperature classes.
In most practical situations where flammable materials are used, it is difficult to ensure that an explosive gas atmosphere will never occur. It may also be difficult to ensure that apparatus will never give rise to a source of ignition. Therefore, in situations where an explosive gas atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring, reliance is placed on using apparatus which has a low likelihood of creating a source of ignition. Conversely, where the likelihood of an explosive gas atmosphere occurring is reduced, apparatus constructed to a less rigorous standard may be used.
It is rarely possible by a simple examination of a plant or plant design to decide which parts of the plant can be equated to the three zonal definitions (zones 0, 1 and 2). A more detailed approach is therefore necessary and this involves the analysis of the basic possibility of an explosive gas atmosphere occurring.
The first step is to assess the likelihood of this, in accordance with the definitions of zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. Once the likely frequency and duration of release (and hence the grade of release), the release rate, concentration, velocity, ventilation and other factors which affect the type and/or extent of the zone have been determined, there is then a firm basis on which to determine the likely presence of an explosive gas atmosphere in the surrounding areas.
This approach therefore requires detailed consideration to be given to each item of process equipment which contains a flammable material, and which could therefore be a source of release.
In particular, zone 0 or zone 1 areas should be minimized in number and extent by design or suitable operating procedures. In other words, plants and installations should be mainly zone 2 or non-hazardous. Where release of flammable material is unavoidable, process equipment items should be limited to those which give secondary grade releases or, failing this (that is where primary or continuous grade releases are unavoidable), the releases should be of very limited quantity and rate.
In carrying out area classification, these principles should receive prime consideration. Where necessary, the design, operation and location of process equipment should ensure that, even when it is operating abnormally, the amount of flammable material released into the atmosphere is minimized, so as to reduce the extent of the hazardous area.
Once a plant has been classified and all necessary records made, it is important that no modification to equipment or operating procedures is made without discussion with those responsible for the area classification. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area classification. It is necessary to ensure that all equipment affecting the area classification which has been subjected to maintenance is carefully checked during and after re-assembly to ensure that the integrity of the original design, as it affects safety, has been maintained before it is returned to service.