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Dictionary of Electrical Engineering

Commonly used terms in the Electrical industry.

field reversing
a method of achieving a reversal of rotation of a DC motor by reserving the field flux.
field strength
in general terms the magnitude of the electric field vector (in volts per meter) or the magnitude of the magnetic field vector (in ampere-turns per meter). As used in the field of EMC/EMI, the term is applied only to measurements made in the far field and is abbreviated as FS. For measurements made in the near field, the term
electric field strength (EFS) or magnetic field strength (MFS) is used, according to whether the resultant electric or magnetic field, respectively, is measured.
field weakening
a method of achieving speed increase in DC motors by reducing the field flux (increasing field circuit resistance).
filter
(1) a network, usually composed of inductors and capacitors (for lumped circuit), or transmission lines of varying length and characteristic impedance (for distributed circuit), that passes AC signals over a certain frequency range while blocking signals at other frequencies. A bandpass filter passes signals over a specified range (flow to fhi),
and rejects frequencies outside this range. For example, for a DBS receiver that is to receive satellite transmitted microwave signals in a frequency range of 11 GHz to 12 GHz, a band-pass filter (BPF) would allow signals in this frequency range to pass through with minimum signal loss, while blocking all other frequencies. A low-pass filter (LPF)
would allow signals to pass with minimum signal loss as long as their frequency was less than a certain "cutoff frequency" above which significant signal blocking occurs.

(2) an operator that transforms image intensity Ix of pixel x into a different intensity îx, depending on the values of a set of (usually neighboring) pixels (which may or may not include x). Filtering is performed to enhance significant features of an image or to remove nonsignificant ones or noise. filter bank a set of filters consisting of a bank of analysis filters and a bank of synthesis filters. The analysis filters decompose input signal spectra into a number of directly adjacent frequency bands for further processing, and the synthesis filters recombine the signal spectra from different frequency bands.
filtering
(1) an estimation procedure in which the present value of the state vector (see the definition) is estimated based on the data available up to the present time.

(2) the process of eliminating object, signal or image components which do not match up to some pre-specified criterion, as in the case of removing specific types of noise from signals. More generally, the application of an
operator (typically a linear convolution) to a signal.
fin efficiency
a thermal characteristic of an extended surface that relates the heat transfer ability of the additional area to that of the base area.
finger stick
an insulated stick like a hot-stick used to actuate a disconnect-switch atop a pole.
firm power
an amount of electric power intended to be available at all times to a commercial customer, regardless of system conditions.
fission
the nuclear reaction in which a single heavy nucleus is split into two or more lighter nucleii called "daughter" products and emit highly energetic sub-atomic particles plus energy in the process.
fixed losses
that component of the copper losses in DC shunt, short-shunt, and long-shunt machines’ field circuit, that does not vary with change in the load current. With a fixed field power supply, it is an accepted industry agreement to not consider the losses in the field circuit rheostat in computing the efficiency and hence consider the field losses
as fixed losses.


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