Substation1
Dictionary of Electrical Engineering

Commonly used terms in the Electrical industry.

AC/DC converter

See rectifier
AC-DC integrated system
a power system containing both AC and DC transmission lines.
ADC

See analog-to-digital converter
brushless DC motor

See electronically commutated machine
compound-connected DC machine
a direct current machine with two field windings in which one field winding is connected
in series and one field winding is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature winding. The shunt winding may be connected ahead of the series winding (long-shunt connection), or behind the series winding (short-shunt connection).
DC generator commutator exciter
a source of energy for the field winding of a synchronous machine derived from a direct current generator. The direct current generator may be driven by an external motor, a prime mover, or by the shaft of the synchronous machine.
DC
direct current
See DC voltage
DC block
A circuit simulation component that behaves like a capacitor of infinite value.
DC chopper
a DC to DC converter that reduces the voltage level by delivering pulses of constant voltage to the load. The average output is equal to the input times the duty cycle of the switching element.
DC circuit
electrical networks in which the voltage polarity and directions of current flow remain fixed. Thus such networks contain direct currents as opposed to alternating currents, thereby giving rise to the term.
DC current constant
current with no variation over time. This can be considered in general terms as an alternating current (AC) with a frequency of variation of zero, or a zero frequency signal. For microwave systems, DC currents are provided by batteries or AC/DC converters required to "bias" transistors to a region of operation where they will either amplify, mix or frequency translate, or generate (oscillators) microwave energy.
DC input power
the total DC or bias power dissipated in a circuit, which is usually dependent on signal amplitudes, expressed in watts. This may include input bias, bias filtering, regulators, control circuits, switching power supplies and any other circuitry required by the actual circuit. These considerations should be explicitly specified, as they will affect how efficiency calculations are performed.
DC link
the coupling between the rectifier and inverter in a variable speed AC drive.
DC link capacitor
a device used on the output of a rectifier to create an approximately constant DC voltage for the input to the inverter of a variable speed AC drive.

DC link inductor
an inductor used on the output of a controlled rectifier in AC current source drives to provide filtering of the input current to the current source inverter. If used in conjunction with a capacitor, then it is used as a filter in voltage source drives.
DC load flow
a fast method of estimating power flows in an electric power system in which the problem is reduced to a DC circuit, with line impedances modeled as resistances and all generator bus voltages presumed to remain at their nominal values.

DC machine
an electromechanical (rotating) machine in which the field winding is on the stator and carries DC current, and the armature winding is on the rotor. The current and voltage in the armature winding is actually AC, but it is rectified by the commutator and brushes.
DC motor
a motor that operates from a DC power supply. Most DC motors have a field winding on the stator of the machine that creates a DC magnetic field in the airgap. The armature winding is located on the rotor of the machine and the DC supply is inverted by the commutator and brushes to provide an alternating current in the armature windings.

DC motor drive
a converter designed to control the speed of DC motors. Controlled rectifiers are generally used and provide a variable DC voltage from a fixed AC voltage. Alternatively, a chopper, or DC-DC converter, can be employed to provide a variable DC voltage from a fixed DC voltage.
DC offset current
the exponentially decaying current component that flows immediately following a fault inception. DC offset is the result of circuit inductance, and is a function of the point in the voltage wave where the fault begins. The offset for a given fault can range from no offset to fully offset (where the instantaneous current peak equals the full peak-peak value of the AC current).