Tutorial Grounding - Simple Tips

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I previously posted a tutorial on how to calculate the resistance of an earth electrode

To supplement that, here are some extract from IEEE 524 [1]:
5.4.2.1 Soil resistance and use of ground rods
The resistivity of the earth plays a significant role in how effectively a fault current or induced current is drained off. The resistivity of the ground varies with the type, moisture content, and temperature of the soil.
These variables affect the ground resistance in a direct, proportionate relationship. Therefore, seasonal changes cause major fluctuations in the ground resistance.
A grounding system with a low resistance when the soil moisture content is high could easily exhibit an excessively high resistance and hence, an unsafe condition during the drier part of the year when the soil moisture content is very low.
The resistance of the grounding system is very important as it determines the voltage rise between the ground rods, grids, and the earth, as well as the voltage gradients that will be created when the current flows into the ground.
The following three components contribute to the resistance of the grounding system:
a) The resistance of the connections between the grounding leads, phase conductor, and the ground rod(s), and the resistance of the grounding lead itself.
b) The contact resistance between the ground rod and the soil.
c) The resistance of the body of earth immediately surrounding the rod. Of the three components involved in “resistance,” the resistance of the earth is the most critical and the most difficult to calculate and minimize.

To achieve the best results, ground rods should be driven into undisturbed earth. The practice of placing rods adjacent to poles or footing is the least effective.

5.4.2.2 Effect of rod depths and multiple rods
The distance a ground rod extends into the earth has a great effect on its measured ground resistance. A shallow driven rod will usually have a high year-round resistance because of its small effective resistance area, and will always be subject to excessive seasonal variations due to varying moisture contents in the soil. Multiple sectional deep rods will have a larger effective resistance area and may approach a permanent moisture level; therefore, its resistance will be much lower.

In effect, a series of multiple-driven rods become a set of resistances in parallel; however, the parallel resistance law is not precisely applicable (because of the concentric shells of earth are overlapping). For the best results from a practical point of view, the spacing between the rods should not be less than the depth of the individual rods.

5.4.2.3 Recommended methods
The following are recommended methods on the use of ground rods in grounding:
a) Use deep driven multiple sectional ground rods where soil conditions permit or are required.
b) Use additional multiple sectional ground rods to increase the current capacity of ground electrode.
c) Add additional grounds where possible along the line under construction to decrease the current flow through the individual ground connection source.
References:
  1. IEEE Std 524-2003 OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE CONDUCTORS
 
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