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Dictionary of Electrical Engineering

Commonly used terms in the Electrical industry.

artificial dielectric
a dielectric material that has been modified to alter its properties. Common modifications include micro-machining to remove material from the substrate under planar patch antenna to improve radiation properties and the fabrication of periodic arrays of holes to realize guiding or photonic bandgap structures.
artificial intelligence
the study of computer techniques that emulate aspects of human intelligence, such as speech recognition, logical inference, and ability to reason from partial information.
ASCII
American standard code for information interchange.
askarel
a trade name for an insulating oil.

aspect ratio
(1) the size invariant ratio of length to width for a rectangular box enclosing a shape, the orientation of the box being chosen to maximize the ratio. This measure is used to characterize object shapes as a preliminary to, or as a quick procedure for, object recognition.
(2) the ratio of width to height for an image or display.
(3) in television or motion pictures, the algebraic ratio of picture width to height. At present, the television format in the United States consists of a width to height ratio of 4 to 3.

asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
a digital subscriber line (DSL) in which the rate from central switching office (CO) to customer premise is much faster than the rate from customer premise to CO.
asynchronous
not synchronous.

asynchronous AC systems
AC systems either with different operating frequencies or that are not in synchronism.
asynchronous bus
a bus in which the timing of bus transactions is achieved with two basic "handshaking" signals, a request
signal from the source to the destination and an acknowledge signal from the destination to the source. The transaction begins with the request to the destination. The acknowledge signal is generated when the destination is ready to accept the transaction. Avoids the necessity to know system delays in advance and allows different timing for different transactions.

See synchronous bus
asynchronous circuit
(1) a sequential logic circuit without a system clock.
(2) a circuit implementing an asynchronous system. asynchronous demodulation a technique for extracting the information-carrying waveform from a modulated signal without requiring a phase-synchronized carrier for demodulation.
See synchronous demodulation

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