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Dictionary of Electrical Engineering

Commonly used terms in the Electrical industry.

antireflective coating (ARC)
a coating placed on top or below the layer of photoresist to reduce the reflection of light, and hence reduce the detrimental effects of standing waves or thin film interference.
AOA
See angle of arrival
aperiodic waveform
a phrase is used to describe a waveform that does not repeat itself in a uniform, periodic manner. Compare with periodic waveform.
aperture
(1) an opening to a cavity, or wave-guide, from which radiation is either received or transmitted. Typically used as antenna or a coupling element.
(2) a physical space available for beam to occupy in a device. Aperture limitations are the physical size of the vacuum chamber; a magnetic field anomaly may deflect the beam so that the full available aperture cannot be used.
aperture antenna
an antenna with a physical opening, hole, or slit.

apparent power
(1) in an AC system, the product of voltage, Eand current, I. Apparent power (or total power) is composed of
two mutually independent components — an active component (real power), and a reactive component (imaginary power). Apparent power is denoted by S, and has the unit of voltamperes.
(2) the scalar product of the voltage and current delivered to the load. It can also be expressed as the vector S = P + jQ, where P = real power and Q = reactive power.
arc fault interrupter
the mechanism that breaks the fault current arc in a power circuit breaker.

arc lamp
lamp made by driving a high current across a gap between two electrodes. Some types operate in air consuming the electrode, for example, a carbon arc in which the electrode material is made as a rod and fed into the discharge to replace what is consumed. Others operate in a vacuum envelop that reduces the electrode consumption.
arc resistance
period of time that the surface of an insulating material can be submitted to the action of an electrical arc without becoming conductive.
arcing fault
See arcing ground

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